EN 2212 Language Structure, Usage & Linguistics IV

Prepositions and prepositional phrases (15/08hrs)

  •  Prepositions: A preposition expresses a relation between two entities.
    – Various types of relational meanings: e.g. place- at, in, on, to, away, from etc.
    – other meanings: time, cause, instrument, reference
  •  Activity: Find examples for each type of prepositional relationships.
  •  Structure of the prepositional phrase
    Preposition + a noun phrase – in the garden
    wh- clause – about what you said
    -ing clause – by signing a peace treaty
  •  Functions:
    – a) Adverbial, b) post modifier of the noun phrase, c) verb complement d) Adjective
    – give examples to illustrate each function
  •  Types of activities: underline the prepositional phrases in the text/sentences and label the
    function of each.

Phrasal verbs (15/07hrs)

  •  Formation:
    – Verb adverbial particle combination e.g. sitting down, taken off
    – Some phrasal verbs retain the individual meanings of the verb and the adverb particle,
    e.g. sit down. In other phrasal verbs meaning of the combination cannot be built up
    from the meanings of the individual verb and adverb, e.g. give in (surrender), turn up
    (arrive, appear)
  •  Transitive phrasal verbs: can take an object, e.g. They turned on the light.
    – With most of them, the adverb can either come before or follow a noun object,
    E.g. they turned the light on.
    – Intransitive phrasal verbs: a verb plus a particle
    – Drink up quickly.

Reported speech (15/08 hrs)

  •  To report what somebody has said we can use either quotation marks (direct speech) or a that- clause (indirect speech)
    E.g. He said ‘I need more money’. He said that he needed more money.
  •  Certain changes are made in connecting from direct to indirect
    – Change present tense to past tense.
    – Change 1st and 2nd person pronouns into 3rd person
    – Change pointer words (his, now, here etc.) into that, then, there, the next day, etc.
  •  Provide examples and activities.
  • Indirect questions: a wh-clause is used instead of that- clause
    E.g. Do you live here? She asked him whether (if) he lived there.

Comment clauses (10/05 hrs)

  •  Function and position: Comment clauses do not add to the actual information in A sentence, and are loosely related to the rest of the main clause and function as sentence adverbials. In written English they are marked off from the other clause by commas and in speech by having a separate tone unit. They can occur in front, mid-and
    end-positions in a clause.
  •  Comment clauses are of varied types.
    At that time, I believe, he worked as a mechanic.
    He’s a workaholic, you see.
    Other examples of comment clauses (mainly in informal speech) are:
    You know, I know, I think, I’m afraid, I see, as you see, to be frank, etc.
  •  Types of activities
    – Listen to the conversation. List the comment clauses you hear.
    – Listen to conversations of different people. Write down the comment clauses you notice

Transformation of Sentences (15/07 hrs)

  • Interchange of affirmative and negative sentences.
  • Interchange of interrogative and assertive sentences.
  • Interchange of exclamatory and assertive sentences.
  • Conversion of simple sentence to compound sentence.
  • Conversion of simple sentence to complex sentence.

Psycholinguistics (20/ 10 hrs)

  • Introduction to psycholinguistics
  • Human brain & language
  • Speech mechanism
  • Communication disabilities
  • Language for special purpose